Violence is any action that forcefully, and without permission, violates another individual's physical, psychological, emotional, or spiritual boundaries. Violence is a component of Toxic Socialization


Violence may be physical, emotional, psychological, and spiritual.

  • physical violence: hitting, biting, corporal punishment, prenatal exposure to drugs. sexual abuse: sexual contact or non-contact, sexual interference (Behl, Conyngham, & May, 2003)
  • psychological violence: abuse that impairs the mental life of the individual, including impairment of intelligence, memory, perception, attention, imagination, and moral development (O'Hagan, 1995).
  • emotional violence: o abuse that impairs/damages the emotional life of the individual, including their ability to properly regulate emotions, and to take responsibility, be confident, be open to others when appropriate, maintain appropriate boundaries, and trust. Emotional abuse includes verbal abuse, excessive demands, excessively harsh judgments, and other abuse patterns that impact the child’s ability to feel happy and healthy in their own skin (O'Hagan, 1995).
  • spiritual violence:

Violence is always disjunctive and harmful, to both the victim and the perpetrator.

Full human development, Healing and Connection, requires the cessation of all forms of violence and the re-establishment of healthy, respectful, and nurturing spaces.