Seven Essential Needs

From The SpiritWiki

The Seven Essential Needs are the seven needs the physical body and mind (i.e. Physical Unit) is required to meet in order to grow up healthy and finally achieve and maintain strong Connection.[1] [2][3] The Seven Essential Needs are broken down into two general categories, basic needs and inner needs.The basic needs include the physiological, cognitive, environmental, emotional, and psychological needs of the body. The inner needs include the need for Alignment and the need for Connection. Failure to meet the seven essential needs leads to the 3Ds of Toxic Existence.

Seven Essential Needs

Syncretic Terms

Seven Essential Needs > Cognitive Interests

List of Essential Needs Categories

Seven Essential Needs > Emotional Needs, Environmental Needs

Related LP Terms

Seven Essential Needs > 3Ds of Toxic Existence, Attachments, Basic Needs, Dependent Need Fulfillment, Essential Needs Rule Set, Needs Algorithm, Physical Unit, Realistic Empowerment, Sufficient Satisfaction, Toxic Socialization

Non-LP Related Terms

Seven Essential Needs > Active Need Fulfillment, Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACE) Study, Essential Needs, Health, Hierarchy of Basic Needs, Hierarchy of Cognitive Needs, Human Development, Needs, Polyvagal Theory, Seven Toxic Needs, Violence


The Seven Essential Needs are the foundations of human health and full Human Development. Failure to sufficiently meet essential needs leads to atrophy and eventual degradation of bodily systems.

Maslow "warned that the systematic frustration of basic needs for survival and higher needs for meaning and purpose would result in personal and collective neurosis" [4]

Meeting essential needs puts an individual body into Growth Mode. Failure to sufficiently satisfy essential needs leads the Physical Unit (the body and mind) to redirect bodily energy towards the satisfaction of unmet needs. A body whose energy is being redirected towards the satisfaction of unmet needs is a body operating in Deficit Mode (see also Growth Mode). Chronic neglect of essential needs leads to dysfunction, disease, and disconnection (the 3Ds of Toxic Existence).

The Seven Essential Needs are broken down into two general categories, basic needs and inner needs. Each of these categories includes several related needs.

Basic needs are foundational needs. In order for an individual to grow healthy and connected, these needs must be sufficiently met else the body and mind atrophy. Basic needs include physiological needs (food, water), emotional needs (love and belonging, attachment, inclusion), cognitive needs (truth and understanding), psychological needs (positive self-regard, positive-esteem), and environmental (safe, aesthetically pleasing home environments. stable finances, etc.).

Inner needs are "spiritual" needs for Alignment and Connection.

The Basic Needs

Physiological Needs

Physiological needs include the need for healthy food, water, vitamins, and air, the need for physical exercise, the need for clothing, the need for sleep, and so on. Physiological needs also include the absence of physical pain.

Satisfaction of physiological needs has profound benefits for our physiological, emotional, cognitive, egoic, and spiritual well-being.

  1. Physiological Outcomes: Fulfilling physiological needs leads to overall improved health and vitality. Good nutrition promotes immune system function,[5] while regular physical activity can reduce the risk of various diseases like cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and obesity.[6] Adequate sleep is associated with enhanced immune function, improved metabolic health, and lower risk of chronic diseases.[7] Proper clothing protects the body from environmental hazards, while the absence of physical pain improves quality of life.[8]
  2. Egoic Outcomes:
  3. Emotional Outcomes: With physiological needs met, individuals are less likely to experience stress, anxiety, and depression related to survival worries. Moreover, regular physical exercise can lead to improved mood and reduced anxiety.[9]
  4. Cognitive Outcomes: Adequate nutrition, particularly intake of essential nutrients like omega-3 fatty acids, antioxidants, and B vitamins, supports brain development and can enhance cognitive function and slow cognitive decline.[10] Regular physical exercise and good sleep quality are also associated with better cognitive performance and reduced risk of neurodegenerative diseases.[11]
  5. Spiritual Outcomes: Meeting physiological needs can free up mental and emotional resources and put the Bodily Ego into Growth Mode, allowing individuals to pursue Alignment and engage in Connection Practice.

A failure to meet physiological needs leads to a host of sequelae, including

  1. Physiological Impairments: Long-term deprivation of physiological needs can lead to various health issues. Lack of proper nutrition can cause malnutrition which in turn leads to structural changes and reduced brain volume,[12] a weakened immune system, and increased susceptibility to diseases.[13] Sleep deprivation can increase the risk of conditions such as heart disease, diabetes, obesity, and other chronic health problems.[14] The absence of physical exercise can lead to obesity, heart diseases, and a decreased life expectancy.[15] Constant physical pain can deteriorate overall health and quality of life.[16] Note that physiological deprivations experienced by the mother have negative consequences for the fetus.
  2. Egoic Impairments:
  3. Emotional Impairments: Long-term deprivation of physiological needs can lead to emotional stress, anxiety, and depression, primarily due to feelings of vulnerability and an incessant state of fear and anxiety over meeting basic needs.[17] Chronic stress and anxiety can in turn lead to additional mental health impairments.[18]
  4. Cognitive Impairments: Chronic malnutrition, particularly during the "brain growth spurt," can impact cognitive development and function, causing deficits in memory, attention, and cognitive flexibility.[19] Lack of sleep can significantly affect cognitive functions such as attention, memory, decision-making and problem-solving abilities.[20] Finally, the constant worry about meeting basic needs can put an individual into Deficit Mode. In this mode, the individual's cognitive development, processing, and learning capacity are undermined[21] as cognitive energies are diverted away from growth tasks (Growth Mode) and towards meeting unmet basic needs (Deficit Mode).
  5. Spiritual Impairments:

Adam Smith said an interesting thing about the deprivation of physiological needs, particularly in relation to poverty.[22]

Emotional Needs

See Emotional Needs

Cognitive Needs

Our cognitive needs are our biologically and spiritually rooted need to know and understand the world.[23] Basically, our powerful need for truth.[24] [25] The cognitive needs are self-evident in children where they are expressed at a very early age in the incessant questioning of young children. “Mommy, why is the sky blue?” “Why is daddy angry all the time?”

Just like all your other basic needs, your truth needs are biologically rooted needs important for individual and collective survival, growth, and connection. An organism that does not know and understand its environment, an organism that does not pay attention and seek out the truth of things, is an organism not long for this world.

Satisfying cognitive needs can lead to various positive outcomes.

  1. Physiological Outcomes: One of the key impacts is improved brain health. Researchers have shown active engagement in mentally stimulating activities can contribute to the maintenance of cognitive function in old age and reduce the risk of neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's.[26] Individuals may also experience a lower level of stress and anxiety, which can positively impact physical health, such as better sleep, stronger immune system, and a healthier heart rate.[27]
  2. Egoic Outcomes:
  3. Emotional Outcomes: Emotionally, satisfying cognitive needs can lead to increased self-esteem, reduced anxiety, and better emotional regulation. Satisfying cognitive needs can help individuals make sense of their emotions, leading to improved emotional well-being.[28] Fulfillment of cognitive needs is often linked to greater emotional well-being and happiness, resulting in more positive emotions, less emotional distress, and greater resilience in the face of adversity.[29]
  4. Cognitive Outcomes: From a cognitive perspective, satisfying cognitive needs can lead to enhanced problem-solving abilities, creativity, and critical thinking skills,[30] all of which can make it a lot easier to navigate and survive this planet's Toxic Socialization system.When cognitive needs such as autonomy, competence, and relatedness are met, individuals can show higher levels of motivation, creativity, and problem-solving abilities.[29]
  5. Spiritual Outcomes: Spiritually speaking, satisfying cognitive needs helps alleviate boredom,[31] empowers, increases self-awareness, and enhances self-control and resilience. It also aids in the development of a solid worldview[32] which in turn enhances one's sense of fulfillment, one's purpose and meaning in life.[33] When cognitive needs are satisfied, individuals often feel a deeper sense of purpose and meaning in life, which can enrich their spiritual experiences.[34]

Failing to satisfy cognitive needs can lead to various negative outcomes.

  1. Physiological Consequences:
    1. Cognitive Atrophy: The brain, being a highly dynamic organ, follows the rule of "use it or lose it." When cognitive needs are not met, especially in early development stages, it can lead to atrophy of certain brain regions involved in cognitive processing. This lack of cognitive stimulation can lead to reduced neuronal connectivity and synaptic density, resulting in poorer cognitive abilities,
    2. Increased Risk of Neurodegenerative Disorders: Numerous studies have suggested that cognitive engagement and mental stimulation throughout life can build a 'cognitive reserve' that can delay the onset of neurodegenerative diseases like Alzheimer's and dementia. Failure to meet cognitive needs can potentially increase the risk of developing such disorders. For example, research has shown that lower cognitive activity levels are associated with higher risks for Alzheimer's disease and faster cognitive decline.[35]
    3. Increased Stress Response: The inability to understand or make sense of one's environment due to unmet cognitive needs can lead to increased stress and anxiety. Chronic stress has been associated with a multitude of physiological issues, including an overactive sympathetic nervous system, increased blood pressure, and a higher risk of cardiovascular disease.
    4. Stunted Intellectual Growth: One of the most direct negative outcomes of unmet cognitive needs is stunted intellectual growth and limited cognitive abilities. This can lead to poor problem-solving skills, lack of critical thinking, and reduced creativity. An environment that does not satisfy an individual's cognitive needs can limit their cognitive development and ability to learn effectively.
  2. Emotional Consequences: Emotionally, failure to meet cognitive needs can result in anxiety, depression, and low self-esteem. Lack of understanding or knowledge about oneself or the world can lead to feelings of insecurity and inferiority, causing emotional distress. Studies have shown a strong correlation between unmet cognitive needs and mental health issues[36].
  3. Social Consequences: On a social level, inability to satisfy cognitive needs can lead to poor social interactions and relationships. Understanding social cues, empathizing with others, and effectively communicating are all dependent on cognitive processes. An individual who lacks these cognitive skills may face difficulties in forming and maintaining social relationships.
  4. Spiritual Consequences: Spiritually, individuals may struggle with a lack of purpose or meaning in life if their cognitive needs are not met. The quest for understanding and knowledge is often closely tied to one's search for spiritual or existential meaning.

Psychological Needs

In addition to physiological, environmental, and emotional needs, we also have basic psychological needs. Our psychological needs include our need for positive self-esteem and sense of self, our need to feel powerful and competent,[37] our need to feel good about and to have faith in ourselves,[38] and our need for autonomy and freedom,[39] We need to feel we are a good person that is worthy of love and acceptance. We also need to feel competent and powerful, like we can accomplish the things we want to accomplish in life.[40][41][42][43]

Satisfaction of these needs has been linked to well-being,[44] competence, vitality,[45] and enhanced creativity. Satisfaction of these leads also support Alignment and Connection, which together allow for the full expression of the Spiritual Ego.

Sufficiently meeting psychological needs has been shown to promote well-being and overall life satisfaction across several dimensions:

  1. Physiological Outcomes: When psychological needs are met, it can lead to improved physiological health. Studies have shown that positive self-esteem and autonomy are associated with better physical health, likely due to healthier lifestyle choices and improved stress management. Enhanced well-being can also lead to improved immune function and slower aging[46]).
  2. Egoic Outcomes:
  3. Emotional Outcomes: Meeting psychological needs contributes significantly to emotional well-being. A positive self-concept, feelings of competence, and autonomy are all associated with lower levels of negative emotions and higher levels of positive emotions. People with high self-esteem and feelings of competence tend to be more resilient and better able to handle emotional setbacks.[47]
  4. Cognitive Outcomes: Satisfying psychological needs like autonomy and competence has been linked to enhanced cognitive performance, including improved problem-solving skills, creativity, and learning outcomes. It also encourages a growth mindset, promoting continuous learning and intellectual development[48].
  5. Spiritual Outcomes: A positive sense of self and feelings of competence can contribute to spiritual growth by fostering a sense of purpose and meaning in life. Individuals who have their psychological needs met may be better able to engage in self-reflection and spiritual exploration[49]

Chronic failure to meet psychological needs such as a positive sense of self, autonomy, competence, and feeling good about oneself can have severe consequences:

  1. Physiological Impairments: Chronic psychological distress can have significant impacts on physiological health. Prolonged experiences of low self-esteem, feelings of incompetence, and lack of autonomy can lead to stress, which in turn can affect the immune system, cardiovascular health, and sleep patterns.[50] Chronic stress has also been linked to accelerated cellular aging[51]
  2. Egoic/Personality Impairments.
    1. Personality Disorders: Particularly, narcissistic personality disorder (NPD) may arise from an inflated sense of self-worth and a desperate need for validation, while borderline personality disorder (BPD) might occur when an individual feels chronically invalidated and struggles with self-image and fear of abandonment.[52][53]
    2. Eating Disorders: Unmet needs for self-esteem and competence can contribute to the development of eating disorders such as anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa. These disorders often stem from a distorted body image and an extreme desire for control.[54]
    3. Substance Use Disorders: These disorders may occur when individuals use substances as a coping mechanism to deal with feelings of low self-esteem, powerlessness, or lack of freedom. Substance use disorders are closely linked to poor mental health and unmet psychological needs.[55]
  3. Emotional Impairments: A lack of fulfillment in psychological needs can lead to various emotional disorders, including depression, anxiety, and other mood disorders. Poor self-esteem and feelings of incompetence can lead to heightened sensitivity to negative feedback and rejection, increasing vulnerability to depressive symptoms.[56][57]
  4. Cognitive Impairments: Unmet psychological needs can negatively impact cognitive functioning. A lack of autonomy and feelings of incompetence can impair problem-solving abilities and diminish creativity. It can also result in a fixed mindset, impeding learning and intellectual growth.[58] It can undermine motivation for learning and intellectual development.[59]
  5. Spiritual Impairments: Chronic failure to meet psychological needs can also hinder spiritual growth. Low self-esteem, lack of autonomy, and feelings of incompetence can impede a person's search for meaning and purpose in life, potentially leading to existential crises and a lack of spiritual fulfillment.[60]

Environmental Needs

See Environmental Needs

Inner Needs

Inner needs include our important and closely associated needs for Alignment and Connection


express and unfold [37]

We all have a need to express[61] and unfold. Aristotle, Carl Rogers, and others capture these needs with the concept Eudaimonia which is the expression of human excellence and virtue (read Alignment),the doing of what is worth doing.[62]

Moving to the inner needs now, our alignment need is essentially our need to be “synced-up” with our spiritual ego, to be in alignment with our spiritual ego,. To express and actualize who we truly are deep inside. It can be a little challenging to wrap your head around this, and we talk about it in much greater detail later. For now, just imagine your Spiritual Ego for what it is, a very bright, powerful, kind, compassionate, loving, and aware spiritual being. To be in alignment means that your bodily ego thinks, acts, and feels with the same power, kindness, compassion, love, and awareness that characterizes your spiritual ego. If you are not acting like that, you are not acting in alignment with your spiritual ego.

If you want to know what alignment looks like, think Jesus Christ, the Buddha, and, for all his patriarchal and elitist imperfections, Ghandi or Mother Theresa. Though they may not have been perfect, these individuals strove to meet their need for alignment between the spiritual ego and bodily ego by expressing power, kindness, compassion, love, and awareness.

For your information, Maslow has some thoughts on this inner need for alignment in his article “How we Diminish Ourselves," and how this need to align with our "deepest nature" finds a way to push through even when we actively resist. <ref>Abraham H. Maslow, “How We Diminish Ourselves,” The Journal of Humanistic Education and Development 29, no. 3 (March 1, 1991): 117–20.</ref>

Alignment needs are your needs to be in alignment/agreement with your own ethics, values, and purpose.  In LP terms, this means being in alignment with your Spiritual Ego.

in Humanistic psychology, self-actualization.[63] Presuming the existence of a “soul,” or a spark of Consciousness that exists independent of the physical body, we need to align our bodily ego, our body’s self or Bodily Ego, with this higher level our Self, our Spiritual Ego.


Connection needs are your needs to be connected, to your family, to your friends, to your work place, to your own Spiritual Ego, and even to God.

  1. Our biological programmed Need for Connection with family, Spirit, Highest Self, place (land), the ancestors,[64] Pachamama,[65]and God.
    • It is not enough to actualize our highest self, we need to go beyond and actually make a strong connection with this inner Self.
    • This is a common desideratum of human spiritual systems. In Transpersonal Psychology, transcendence; in Christianity, Islamic, salvation; in Buddhism, enlightenment; etc.) In Transpersonal Psychology, this is known as transcendence; in Christianity and Islamic traditions, this is known as salvation, “Entering the Kingdom,” etc. in Buddhism and Easter traditions, enlightenment). In Sociology, this notion is expressed in a Christian form in Troelstech’s conception of mysticism as the “perfection of the spiritual life” and “unity with the divine” (Steeman, 1975). Evelyn Underhill points directly to this need when she says that we have an “innate tendency...towards complete harmony with the transcendental order, whatever the theological formula under which that order is understood” (Underhill, 2002). Jung referred to this as the experience of the numinosum (Jung, 1938, p. 6).
    • The Catechism of the Catholic Church speaks of an "intimate and vital bond of man [sic] to God" and says that the "desire for God is written in the human heart, because man is created by God and for God; and God never ceases to draw man to himself. Only in God will he find the truth and happiness he never stops searching for."[66] "Man is made to live in communion with God in whom he finds happiness: When I am completely united to you, there will be no more sorrow or trials; entirely full of you, my life will be complete."[67]

In Vedanta, this is the highest need, the most " outstanding urge in people is the search after the abiding spirit or God. There is an inherent desire in every man to experience the abiding spirit, and until he reaches that goal there is no hope for real peace of mind."[68] Satisfaction of one's essential needs leads to wellbeing, physical, mental, and emotional health, creativity, and Eudaimonia.[69]

Ibn Khaldun describes Asabiyya as group feeling, group cohesion (i.e., group connection).

As always, this essential need for connection is biologically programmed by evolutionary processes for several reasons, most important of which, as outlined in Lightning Rod on the Positive Outcomes of Connection, is that being connected makes you smarter, more capable, healthier, happier, and more adaptable than you would be without connection, thereby increasing your chances of surviving and living a happy and fulfilling life. Basically, the spiritual ego is a better, more powerful, more capable version of your body ego. If you want the most out of life, you definitely want to connect the two.

In the literature

George Simmel speaks of " religiousness as an inner state or need of man..."[70]

Underhill says "Broadly speaking, I understand it to be the expression of the innate tendency of the human spirit towards complete harmony with the transcendental order; whatever be the theological formula under which that order is understood."[71]

Einstein says... "There is a mystical drive in man to learn about his own existence...the dignity of man depends not on his membership in a church, but on his scrutinizing mind, his confidence in his intellect, his figuring things out for himself, and above all his respect for the laws of creation" (Hermanns, 1983: np)

Grof says "spiritual search [i.e., search for connection] appears to be an understandable and legitimate human activity." [72] Further, "The deepest motivating force in the human psyche on all the levels of our development is the craving to return to the experience of our divinity"[73]

The satisfaction of the seventh essential need - connection. "Only the experience of one's divinity in a non-ordinary state of consciousness can ever fulfill our deepest needs"[74]

Grof also notes that "Full satisfaction comes ultimately from the experience of...our own divinity, not the pursuit of material goals of any scope or kind [75].

"It is now becoming increasingly evident that a craving for transcendence and a need for inner development are basic and normal aspects of human nature." (alignment and connection) [76]

Huxley (PP) notes that Totalitarian regimes exploit humanity's need for "unity" (read Connection) by "by means of a philosophy of political monism, according to which the state is God on earth, unification under the heel of the divine state is salvation, and all means to such unification, however intrinsically wicked, are right and may be used without scruple."

St. Teresa of Avila notes speaks of a need for actualization and connection suggesting that is "quenches thirst." "Oh, my Lord, if only one could be plunged so deeply into this living water that one’s life would end! Can that be? Yes: 34 this love and desire for God35 can increase so much that human nature is unable to bear it, and so there have been persons who have died of it."[77]

Sri Swami Sivananda notes that religion (I would say Authentic Religion) a "deep inward craving" (i.e., a need for connection)[78]

Swami Vivekananda speaks of the critical importance of meeting people's needs. Though he did not use that name, intimations of a hierarchy of needs was first proposed by Swami Vivekananda in "The Secret Work" in his book Karma Yoga. [79]

Essential needs are equivalent to "basic needs" in that they represent "an energizing state that, if satisfied, conduces toward health and well-being but, if not satisfied, contributes to pathology and ill-being." [80]

General Consequences

Easier to manipulate. Individuals with unmet needs may be easier to manipulate because of their lifelong craving and desperate seeking of satisfaction. [81] This craving, which is often completely unconscious, can be exploited by disreputable or mentally ill actors. See for example Layton who cites Jim Jones attention and manipulative praise as psychological reasons for her toxic attachment to the Jonestown cult. [82] Note, this applies to all needs. Insufficient satisfaction leads to "craving" which makes actors susceptible to manipulators who offers, or even just promise, the satisfaction of one or more of the seven essential needs.

Related LP Courses


  1. Sosteric and Ratkovic. “Seven Essential Needs,” 2018.
  2. Also see Ratkovic, Gina and Sosteric, MIke. “It Takes a Village: Advancing Attachment Theory and Recovering the Roots of Human Health with the Seven Essential Needs.” Aotearoa New Zealand Social Work, 2022.
  3. Sosteric, Mike & Ratkovic, Gina. Eupsychian Theory: Reclaiming Maslow and Rejecting The Pyramid The Seven Essential Needs.” PsyArXiv Preprints, 2020.
  4. Briskin, Alan. “Eupsychian Management: Spirit of the Good in Humanity and Society.” Journal of Humanistic Psychology 63, no. 4 (July 1, 2023): 495–501. p. 448. doi:10.1177/00221678211002757.
  5. Field, Catherine, Glen P. Johnson, and Patricia D. Schley. “Nutrients and Their Role in Host Resistance to Infection.” Journal of Leukocyte Biology, 2002.
  6. Steven N. Blair, "Physical inactivity: the biggest public health problem of the 21st century," British Journal of Sports Medicine 43, no. 1 (2009): 1-2.
  7. Kristen L. Knutson, "Sleep duration and cardiometabolic risk: A review of the epidemiologic evidence," Best Practice & Research Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism 24, no. 5 (2010): 731-743.
  8. Paul J. Goadsby, "Recent advances in understanding migraine mechanisms, molecules and therapeutics," Trends in Molecular Medicine 13, no. 1 (2007): 39-44.
  9. Michael W. Otto, Jasper A. J. Smits, "Exercise for mood and anxiety: Proven strategies for overcoming depression and enhancing well-being," (New York: Oxford University Press, 2011).
  10. Barbara Shukitt-Hale, Marshall G. Miller, Nopporn Thangthaeng, Amanda N. Poulose, "Berry Fruit Enhances Beneficial Signaling in the Brain," Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 65, no. 5 (2017): 820-827.
  11. Laura D. Baker, Laura L. Frank, Karen Foster-Schubert, Pattie S. Green, Charles W. Wilkinson, Anne McTiernan, "Aerobic Exercise Improves Cognition for Older Adults with Glucose Intolerance, A Risk Factor for Alzheimer's Disease," Journal of Alzheimer's Disease 22, no. 2 (2010): 569-579.
  12. Isaacson, R. L. (1974). The effect of malnutrition on the developing brain. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 27(6), 667–676
  13. Ann M. Prendergast, and Eleanor M. Riley, "Immune Mechanisms in Malaria: New Insights in Vaccine Development," Nature Medicine 19, no. 2 (2013): 168.10.1038/nm.3083
  14. Kristen L. Knutson, and Eve Van Cauter, "Associations Between Sleep Loss and Increased Risk of Obesity and Diabetes," Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 1129, no. 1 (2008): 287-304. 10.1196/annals.1417.033
  15. Steven N. Blair, and William L. Haskell, "Objectively Measured Physical Activity and Mortality in Older Adults," JAMA 296, no. 2 (2006): 216-218. 10.1249/MSS.0b013e31828b076a
  16. Abraham H. Maslow, "A Theory of Human Motivation," Psychological Review 50, no. 4 (1943): 370.
  17. Mary C. Sutter, "Fear, Anxiety and Worry," Psychiatry 3, no. 2 (2004): 45-48.
  18. Mark L. Hatzenbuehler, "How Does Sexual Minority Stigma "Get Under the Skin"? A Psychological Mediation Framework," Psychological Bulletin 135, no. 5 (2009): 707. 10.1037/a0016441
  19. Lynne Georgiadis, Alan Jackson, and Lucy Eaton, "Undernutrition and Cognitive Function in School-Aged Children: A Systematic Review," BMJ Open 10, no. 5 (2020): e035378. 10.1136/bmjopen-2019-035378
  20. Hans P.A. Van Dongen, Greg Maislin, Janet M. Mullington, and David F. Dinges, "The Cumulative Cost of Additional Wakefulness: Dose-Response Effects on Neurobehavioral Functions and Sleep Physiology From Chronic Sleep Restriction and Total Sleep Deprivation," Sleep 26, no. 2 (2003): 117-26.
  21. Rachel T. Kimbro, Jeanne Brooks-Gunn, and Sara McLanahan, "Young Children in Urban Areas: Links Among Neighborhood Characteristics, Weight Status, Outdoor Play, and Television-Watching," Social Science & Medicine 72, no. 5 (2011): 668-76.
  22. "But poverty, though it does not prevent the generation, is extremely unfavourable to the rearing of children. The tender plant is produced, but in so cold a soil and so severe a climate, soon withers and dies. " Smith, Adam. The Wealth of Nations - An Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations. Bantam Classics, 2003.
  23. Maslow mentioned the need to know and to understand in his seminal 1943 article "A theory of Human Motivation."
  24. As psychologist Abraham Maslow said, "the most important characteristics of psychological health was simply the ability to perceive clearly—that is, to see the truth, to penetrate falsehood, phoniness, hypocrisy, and so on." In other words, the need to be in touch with reality. Abraham Maslow, “Eupsychia—The Good Society,” Journal of Humanistic Psychology 1, no. 2 (1961): 3.<nowiki>
  25. Habermas's provides a similar conception for cognitive needs in Cognitive Interests Scott, John P. “Critical Social Theory: An Introduction and Critique.” The British Journal of Sociology 29, no. 1 (1978): 1. p. 2
  26. Stern, Yaakov, and Christian Habeck, "The Effects of Cognitive Reserve on Cognition," Journal of Alzheimer's Disease 52, no. 2 (2016): 487-494.
  27. Taylor, Shelley E., Laura Cousino Klein, Beatrice P. Lewis, Tara L. Gruenewald, Regan A. Gurung, and John A. Updegraff. 2000. "Biobehavioral responses to stress in females: tend-and-befriend, not fight-or-flight." Psychological Review 107, no. 3: 411.
  28. Berkowitz, Leonard, "On the Formation and Regulation of Anger and Aggression: A Cognitive-Neoassociationistic Analysis," American Psychologist, 1990, Vol. 45, No. 4
  29. 29.0 29.1 Ryan, Richard M., and Edward L. Deci. 2000. "Self-determination theory and the facilitation of intrinsic motivation, social development, and well-being." American Psychologist 55, no. 1: 68.
  30. Piaget, Jean, "The stages of the intellectual development of the child", Bulletin of the Menninger Clinic, 1962, Vol. 26. 10.1007/BF01713436
  31. Thereby providing a temporary solution to Problem of Ennui
  32. Koltko-Rivera, Mark E., "The psychology of worldviews," Review of General Psychology, 2004, Vol. 8, No. 1. 10.1037/1089-2680.8.1.3
  33. Koltko-Rivera, Mark E., "The psychology of worldviews," Review of General Psychology, 2004, Vol. 8, No. 1. 10.1037/1089-2680.8.1.3
  34. Park, Crystal L. 2010. "Making sense of the meaning literature: an integrative review of meaning making and its effects on adjustment to stressful life events." Psychological Bulletin 136, no. 2: 257.
  35. (Wilson, Robert S., et al., "Cognitive activity and the cognitive morbidity of Alzheimer disease," Neurology, 2010, Vol. 75, No. 11.
  36. Leotti, Laura A., Sheena S. Iyengar, and Kevin N. Ochsner, "Born to Choose: The Origins and Value of the Need for Control," Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 2010, Vol. 14, No. 10.
  37. 37.0 37.1 Ryan, R. M., and E. L. Deci. “Self-Determination Theory and the Facilitation of Intrinsic Motivation, Social Development, and Well-Being.” American Psychologist, 2000.
  38. Akhilananda, Swami. Hindu Psychology: Its Meaning in the West. Routledge, 1948. p. 80
  39. Edward L Deci and Richard M Ryan, Intrinsic Motivation and Self-Determination in Human Behaviour (New York: Springer Science, 1985).
  40. A Bandura, “Human Agency in Social-Cognition Theory,” American Psychologist 44 (1989): 1175–84
  41. A. H. Maslow, Towards a Psychology of Being (2nd Edition) (New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold Company, 1968)
  42. Carl Rogers, Freedom to Learn (Columbus, Ohio: Merrill, 1969)
  43. C. Rogers, A Way of Being. (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin, 1980); R White, Ego and Reality in Psychoanalytic Theory, vol. Psychological Issues Series, Monograph No. 11. (New York: International Universities Press, 1963).
  44. Sheldon, K. M., Ryan, R., & Reis, H. T. (1996, January 1). What Makes for a Good Day? Competence and Autonomy in the Day and in the Person. PERSONALITY AND SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY BULLETIN, 22(12), 1270–1279. British Library Document Supply Centre Inside Serials & Conference Proceedings
  45. Sheldon, K. M., Ryan, R., & Reis, H. T. (1996, January 1). What Makes for a Good Day? Competence and Autonomy in the Day and in the Person. PERSONALITY AND SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY BULLETIN, 22(12), 1270–1279. British Library Document Supply Centre Inside Serials & Conference Proceedings
  46. Ryff, Carol D., and Burton H. Singer. "Know Thyself and Become What You Are: A Eudaimonic Approach to Psychological Well-being." Journal of Happiness Studies 9, no. 1 (2008): 13–39.
  47. Deci, Edward L., and Richard M. Ryan, "The "What" and "Why" of Goal Pursuits: Human Needs and the Self-determination of Behavior," Psychological Inquiry, 2000, Vol. 11, No. 4
  48. Niemiec, Christopher P., and Richard M. Ryan. "Autonomy, Competence, and Relatedness in the Classroom: Applying Self-determination Theory to Educational Practice." Theory and Research in Education 7, no. 2 (2009): 133–144.
  49. Emmons, Robert A. "Is Spirituality an Intelligence? Motivation, Cognition, and the Psychology of Ultimate Concern." The International Journal for the Psychology of Religion 10, no. 1 (2000): 3–26.
  50. Kiecolt-Glaser, Janice K., and Ronald Glaser, "Psychoneuroimmunology and Health Consequences: Data and Shared Mechanisms," Psychosomatic Medicine, 1995, Vol. 57, No. 3
  51. Epel, Elissa S., et al. "Cell Aging in Relation to Stress Arousal and Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors." Psychoneuroendocrinology 31, no. 3 (2006): 277–287.
  52. Elsa Ronningstam, "Narcissistic Personality Disorder: A Clinical Perspective," Journal of Psychiatric Practice 17, no. 2 (2011): 89-99. 10.1097/01.pra.0000396066.52803.aa
  53. Marsha M. Linehan, Cognitive-Behavioral Treatment of Borderline Personality Disorder (New York: Guilford Press, 1993).
  54. Christopher G. Fairburn, Zafra Cooper, and Roz Shafran, "Cognitive Behaviour Therapy for Eating Disorders: A 'Transdiagnostic' Theory and Treatment," Behaviour Research and Therapy 41, no. 5 (2003): 509-528. 10.1016/s0005-7967(02)00088
  55. Edward J. Khantzian, "The Self-Medication Hypothesis of Substance Use Disorders: A Reconsideration and Recent Applications," Harvard Review of Psychiatry 4, no. 5 (1997): 231-244. 10.3109/10673229709030550
  56. Orth, Ulrich, et al., "Low Self-esteem Is a Risk Factor for Depressive Symptoms from Young Adulthood to Old Age," Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 2008, Vol. 117, No. 3.
  57. Baumeister, Roy F., "Self-Esteem, Self-Concept, and Self-Worth," In Handbook of Self and Identity, Second Edition, 2012
  58. Dweck, Carol S., "Mindset: The New Psychology of Success," Ballantine Books, 2006
  59. Ryan, Richard M., and Edward L. Deci, "Self-determination Theory and the Facilitation of Intrinsic Motivation, Social Development, and Well-being," American Psychologist, 2000, Vol. 55, No. 1.
  60. Frankl, Viktor E., "Man's Search for Meaning," Beacon Press, 2006
  61. Expression is identified as an emotional need in Akhilananda, Swami. Hindu Psychology: Its Meaning in the West. Routledge, 1948.
  62. Ryan, Richard M, and Edward L Deci. Self-Determination Theory: Basic Psychological Needs in Motivation, Development, and Wellness. New York: The Guilford Press, 2017
  63. The term self-actualization, originally coined by Kurt Goldstein, was picked up by Abraham Maslow. For Maslow, the need for self-actualization is the need to be creative, to express one’s essence and desire, and to do what one is “fitted for.” As he says, “A musician must make music, an artist must paint, a poet must write, if he is to be ultimately happy. What a man [sic] can be, he must be. This need we may call self-actualization” (Maslow, 1943, pp. 382). This is all true, but in LP psychology we would understand self-actualization as actualization/expression of Self, with a capital "S".
  64. Lucana, Sonia, and John Elfers. “Sacred Medicine: Indigenous Healing and Mental Health.” The Qualitative Report 25, no. 12 (December 1, 2020): 4482
  65. Lucana, Sonia, and John Elfers. “Sacred Medicine: Indigenous Healing and Mental Health.” The Qualitative Report 25, no. 12 (December 1, 2020): 4482.
  66. Vatican. The Catechism of the Catholic Church. Vatican City: Vatican, 1992.
  67. Vatican. The Catechism of the Catholic Church. Vatican City: Vatican, 1992.
  68. Akhilananda, Swami. Hindu Psychology: Its Meaning in the West. Routledge, 1948. p. 51-2.
  69. Ryan, Richard M., and Edward L. Deci. “The Darker and Brighter Sides of Human Existence: Basic Psychological Needs as a Unifying Concept.” Psychological Inquiry 11, no. 4 (October 1, 2000): 319–38.
  70. Simmel, George. Essays on Religion. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1997. p. 3.
  71. Underhill, Evelyn. Mysticism: A Study in the Nature and Development of Spiritual Consciousness. New York: Dover Publications, 2002.
  72. Grof, Stanislav. Technologies of the Sacred Part Two.” The International Journal of Humanities and Peace 15, no. 1 (1999): 93–96. p. 93.
  73. Grof, S. (1999). Technologies of the Sacred—Part Two. The International Journal of Humanities and Peace, 15(1), 93–96. p.96
  74. Laszlo, Ervin, Stanislav Grof, and Peter Russell. The Consciousness Revolution. Las Vegas: Elf Rock Productions, 1999. p. 67.
  75. Laszlo, Ervin, Stanislav Grof, and Peter Russell. The Consciousness Revolution. Las Vegas: Elf Rock Productions, 1999. p. 8.
  76. Grof, Christina, and Stanislav Grof. The Stormy Search for the Self: A Guide to Personal Growth Through Transformational Crises. Penguin, 1990. p. 31.
  77. St. Teresa of Avila. The Way of Perfection. New York: Dover Publications, 2012.
  78. Sivananda, Sri Swami. All About Hinduism. Uttar Predesh, Humalayas, India: Divine Life Trust, 1999.
  79. Vivekananda, Swami. "The Secret of Work." Collected Works of Swami Vivekananda. Vol. 5. 9 vols. Advaita Ashrama, 2016.
  80. Ryan, R. M., and E. L. Deci. “Self-Determination Theory and the Facilitation of Intrinsic Motivation, Social Development, and Well-Being.” American Psychologist, 2000. p. 74.
  81. Grof, Stanislav. When the Impossible Happens. Boulder, CO: Sounds True, 2006.
  82. Layton, Deborah. Seductive Poison. New York: Anchor Books, 2010.