APZ (Abnormal Mental States) Questionnaire

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The APZ (Abnormal Mental States) Questionnaire, also known as the Altered States of Consciousness Rating Scale (OAV) in its revised form, is a psychometric tool used to measure altered states of consciousness, often induced by psychedelic substances or meditation. The questionnaire was developed by Dittrich in the 1990s and has been validated in multiple studies.[1][2]

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The original APZ Questionnaire consists of three primary scales:

Oceanic Boundlessness (O): This scale measures positive experiences of depersonalization and derealization, such as feelings of unity, dissolution of the self, and altered sense of time and space.

Dread of Ego Dissolution (A): This scale measures negative experiences of depersonalization and derealization, such as anxiety, fear of losing control, and fear of insanity.

Visionary Restructuralization (V): This scale measures changes in perception, such as visual hallucinations, synesthesia, and changes in the meaning of percepts.

Each of these scales is made up of several items that participants rate based on their experiences. The questionnaire has been used in a variety of research contexts, including studies on the effects of psychedelic substances like psilocybin and LSD, as well as meditation and other practices that can induce altered states of consciousness.

APZ (Abnormal Mental States) Questionnaire

The following is a revised, shortened version of the scale. Sorry for the image

APZ Abnormal experience scale.png


  1. Dittrich, A. (1998). The standardized psychometric assessment of altered states of consciousness (ASCs) in humans. Pharmacopsychiatry, 31(S 2), 80-84.
  2. Studerus, E., Gamma, A., & Vollenweider, F. X. (2010). Psychometric evaluation of the altered states of consciousness rating scale (OAV). PLOS ONE, 5(8), e12412. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0012412

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